A census report on religion shows that the Muslim population in the country grew at the rate of 36% between 1991 and 2001.
The Hindu rate of growth was 20.3% in the same period. During 1981-91 the figure was 25.1%.
The Muslim growth rate in the previous decade was 34.5%, according to 'The First Report on Religion'.
Census Commissioner J K Banthia released the report, prepared by the office of the registrar general and census commissioner, in New Delhi on Monday.
He presented a copy to Tarlochan Singh, chairman, Minorities Commission.
At 82.7 crore, Hindus constitute 80.5% of India's population of 102.8 crore.
There are 13.8 crore Muslims, comprising 13.4% of the population, the report said.
"Low literacy rate and low participation in work among the Muslim females were some of the reasons for the high growth," Banthia said after releasing the report.
He said among Buddhists also there had been a "sizeable decline" in the growth rate from 35.3% during 1981-91 to only 24.5% during 1991-2001.
Though there was a slight increase in the growth rate of Christians -- 21.5% to 22.6%, there was "noticeable decline" of Sikh growth rate -- 24.3% to 18.2%.